Constructions are used to create new items or variable types in a project. You can create new variables using items that already exist in the project, or with user-entered values.

**Measures**

To create a measure, you first need to select the desired position in the project tree. From here choose * new measure* under

*and then define the expression using the expression editor.*

**construct**from the**design menu Learn more about the design menu.**- You can create new measures from an existing measure, or weight, values, or by entering values explicitly into the definition.
- Measures contain a single value for each respondent.
- Records to be excluded from the measure’s count need to be assigned a NULL value.

**Conditions and Functions**

**a) If statements**

Used to populate a new measure or weight with a different value depending on specific conditions

- The syntax for the if statement is:

*if (Logic_Test, Value_if_True, Value_if_False)*

- The syntax for a nested if statement is:

* if (Logic_Test, Value_if_True, if (Logic_Test, Value_if_True, Value_if_False))*

**b) Count responses**

**Measure**

A measure counting responses in a standard axis can be created using the ** count** function

- The syntax for the count function of a measure is:

*count (Standard_Axis_Name)*

**c) Calculations**

Measures can also be defined using calculations, i.e.

- Addition using +
- Subtraction using -
- Multiplication using *
- Division using /

**Example Scenario**

Let's assume you want to create an "*Other Costs"* measure containing the amount spent that wasn’t on airfares or packages, i.e. the amount left after subtracting airfares and packages from total spend.

**Where to from here?**

Learn more about different construction types.

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